The end of the cold war was a turning point for many European health systems, with many post-socialist transition countries privatizing their state-run health systems, and many West and Southern European health systems experimenting with new public management and other market-oriented health reforms. The projects in the Health Cluster analyze the causes and consequences of changing European health policies. What are the political determinants of health policy reforms, particularly those that privatize health systems and consequently social risk? Why do social inequalities persist despite well-developed welfare states? And what can be done to reduce them? Finally, how responsive are welfare states to changing citizen preferences, and how can one best measure those preferences, for example, regarding health and long-term care services?